What skimmer would Beam recommend?
We do not provide specific recommendations for skimmers. As noted in the skimmer description section of this site, the Model 1 and Model 2 skimmers are believed by Beam to be the best compromise to minimize skimmer “interference” with the molecular beam.
Do you provide a recommendation between the Model 1 and Model 2 skimmers?
We suggest using the Model 2 if there is room, because the greater distance between the skimmer orifice and the mounting bulkhead reduces possible interference from reflected molecules. This is more important when using high intensity beams. If the experiment is space constrained, we would suggest the use of a Model 1 skimmer.
Can you provide a recommendation regarding the use of your nickel vs. copper skimmers (or nozzles)?
Nickel skimmers will be of higher quality and have a higher pressure limit. Copper has a lower tensile strength and is more malleable. The only reasons to use copper rather than a nickel skimmer is to avoid any ferromagnetism, or if copper is more resistant to oxidation by the specific gas being used.
Can you provide advice regarding our planned experiment?
No, we do not provide advice on experiments or apparatus. We suggest a review of the literature and the Atomic and Molecular Beam Methods references.